The central function of the ruler or Sultan in Ottoman political theory was to guarantee justice (Adalet in Turkish) in the land. The intelligence gathering system in the Ottoman Empire was the best in the world until the twentieth century!. Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. The political, economic, and social institutions of the classical Islamic empires were amalgamated with those inherited from Byzantium and the great Turkish empires of Central Asia and were reestablished in new forms that were to characterize the area into modern times. In response, Hungary organized a major European Crusade against the Ottomans. The Ottoman Empire consisted of four social classes; Men of the pen: highly educated; scientists,lawyers, judges and doctors. In the Ottoman Empire your place in hierarchy was based on your skills (merit), although it did help to know.
Turkish cavalrymen transformed into landholding aristocracy; granted possession of villages with peasant labor; created regional power bases; supplementary military force created from slave troops drawn from conquered territories, Janissaries; controlled firearms and artillery as basis of power, gained political influence; sultans technically absolute, but dependent on bureaucracy; some influence of religious leaders within bureaucracy. Entangled by debt, the empire tried to minimize its involvement in the web of European politics by aligning itself with Germany, with whom trade had increased. Ottoman state organization was based on a hierarchy with the sultan, who was usually the Caliph at the top, and below him his viziers, other court officials, and military commanders. The Ottoman Empire, 13001650: The Structure of Power. 11 This put them in political control of millions of non-Muslims.
I. On the Ottoman Traditional Normative System a) Political Structure The Ottoman Empire was a vast, complex and extraordinarily pluralist polity, with large non-Turkish and non-Muslim populations inhabiting its territories. OTTOMAN EMPIRE: ECONOMIC and MILITARY DECLINE to 1700 (4 of 4). What had hurt the Ottomans was social organization and inept political leadership.