The Ottoman Empire ran for over many centuries and consisted of a complex governmental organization which has the Sultan at the top of the pyramid of the hierarchical structure. As a multiethnic, multireligious, and multicultural entity, the Ottoman Empire was the last of the great Islamic empires, which emerged in the later Middle Ages and continued its existence until the early twentieth century. Thus the economic and military changes in Europe, and subsequent crises and responses to these crises radically transformed the empire and its political, administrative and socioeconomic structure. Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. As the territory of the Ottoman principality expanded, however, and the Ottomans inherited the administrative apparatus left by the Byzantines, that simple tribal organization was replaced by a more complex form of government.
The Ottomans practiced a system in which the state (as in the Byzantine Empire) had control over the clergy. Certain pre-Islamic Turkish traditions that had survived the adoption of administrative and legal practices from Islamic Iran remained important in Ottoman administrative circles. Comparing the Ottoman, Mughal and Safavid Empires Ottoman Empire Political Structure The Ottoman legal system accepted the religious law over its subjects. The millet system has a long history in the Middle East, and is closely linked to Islamic rules on the treatment of non-Muslim minorities. The Ottoman term specifically refers to the separate legal courts pertaining to personal law under which minorities were allowed to rule themselves with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government.
Indeed, but for the Ming state in China, the Ottoman Empire in about 1500 was likely the most formidable political system on the planet. Such as many other empires, the Ottoman Empire seems to come from nowhere. The Turks, the future Ottomans, became influential not because they had extraordinary political or military organization, but because of the exhaustion of the older empires of Byzantium and the Abbasids. The Ottoman Empire was a vast state founded in the late 13th century by Turkish tribes in Anatolia and ruled by the descendants of Osman I until its dissolution in 1918. The despotic system of government was mitigated only by the observance of Muslim law.
His regime eliminated Arabs from government and relied entirely on a corps of Persian ministers to administer what came to be known as the Great Seljuk sultanate. At the apex of the hierarchical Ottoman system was the person of the sultan, who acted in a number of capacities–political, military, judicial, social, and religious–under a variety of titles. At the same time the Ottomans extended their territories southwards and eastwards at the expense of other Turkish princedoms, and in 1354 took Ankara in central Anatolia. Yet a political system which endured for 600 years, longer than the empire of Rome in the West or the British Empire, and maintained itself over so large an area, must have had some merits.